close up of Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay plateBy ELISA method to evaluate the presence of antigens and antibodies in a sample, because the method is very useful for determination of the concentration of antibodies in serum (as eg HIV testing), and more can also detect the presence of antigen. This method can also be applied to the food industry, which detects potential allergen content of foods such as walnuts, milk, almonds, peanuts, and eggs. And again can be used in the fields of toxicology, ie fast estimation test various classes of drugs.

ELISA is a screening test and formerly often used for HIV with high enough sensitivity. By ELISA method, a person’s serum is diluted 400-fold, and then applied to the plate HIV antigen attached. If HIV antibodies present in serum can bind to HIV antigen. And so on, the plates are washed to remove all other components of the serum. A “secondary antibody” specially prepared, ie antibodies that bind other antibodies, was then applied to the plate, followed by another wash. This secondary antibody is chemically related to the enzyme.” Human Anti IgG” Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA.

The plate will contain enzyme according to the amount of secondary antibody bound to the plate. A substrate for the enzyme is applied. Catalysis by the enzyme leads to a change in color or fluorescence. ELISA results are displayed as numbers; and the most controversial of these tests is to determine the “cut-off”, ie the point between positive and negative results. Cut-off point is determined by comparing with known standards. When ELISA is used as a drug screening in the workplace, the cut-off concentration equal to 50 ng / mL. For example, set up, and then a sample containing the analyte concentration prepared standards. By knowing a stronger signal than the known sample, the results are “positive.” And to weak signals, the result is “negative.” Doctor Dennis E Bidwell and Alister Voller who created this test.

Now there ELISA kits, which have varying usefulness of detection of a disease, among others: Anemia ELISA kits, Autoimmune Disease kits, Cancer ELISA kits, Cardiac Markers ELISA kits, Allergy ELISA kits, Bone Metabolism ELISA kits, Fertility ELISA kits, steroid ELISA kits, Thyroid ELISA kits, Infectious Disease ELISA kits, ELISA kits Parasitology, Diabetes Assays ELISA kits and so forth. Even for the test food, Food ELISA kits.

With the development of this method for the detection of various diseases, and also for the food, it should be easier for us to be more anticipatory in the face of all sorts of diseases.